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Aleksandar Bachko


Dedicated to
His Royal Highness
Crown Prince
Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram of Sulu
Head of the Royal House
Sultanate of Sulu



   Period of 19th century was in the history of the Sultanate of Sulu very dynamic and marked with various important events. During this century, there was ten Sultans as the heads of state of Sulu. Here will be presented some of the important events, related to their rule in the century of the world's industrial and technological revolution.

   The Sultanate of Sulu entered in the 19th Century as ally of the British Empire. This alliance was dating back to the mid 18th century, when the two countries started their joint struggle against the Spanish. The British in the 18th century had their trading post in the Sultanate of Sulu, more precisely at Balambangan island, near the northern coast of Borneo. The Sultan of Sulu issued a permission for its foundation. This outpost was abandoned by 1775, because it was heavily damaged during the frequent pirate attacks.1

Sultan Sharapud-Din

   At late 18th and early 19th century the Sultanate of Sulu was under the rule of Sultan Sharapud-Din. He was the head of the country from 1789, until his death, in 1808. He lived to old age. He was the son of Sultan Alimud-Din I. During his reign, namely in 1803, the British renewed their presence on the island Balambangan, but this time in the form of military base. From there, however, they withdrew in November 1805.2

Sultan Alimud-Din III

   Sultan Sharapud-Din was succeeded on the throne by his son, Sultan Alimud-Din III. He ruled very briefly, considered to be only 40 days. He died in 1808, the same year as his father. He probably died of smallpox, which raged in that year on the main island of Sulu archipelago, Jolo.3

Sultan Aliyud-Din I

   After Alimud-Din's death, on the throne of this island monarchy, came his younger brother, a pious Sultan Aliyud-Din I. He ruled between the 1808. and 1821. When the Spanish lost Mexico in 1821, their possessions in the Philippines came under the direct rule of Madrid. This further influenced the deterioration in relations between the Spanish Empire and the Sultanate of Sulu.4

Sultan Shakirul-Lah

   In the 1821. Sultan of Sulu became Shakirul-Lah. He was the brother of the Sultans Alimud-Din III and Aliyud-Din I, and the son of Sharapud-Din. He is remembered as a great benefactor of the poor. He reigned for only two years, until his death, in 1823.5

Sultan Jamalul-Kiram I

   Sultan Jamalul-Kiram I was the son of Sultan Alimud-Din III. He ruled the Sultanate of Sulu between 1823. and 1844. The royal House of Kiram, Sultanate of Sulu ruling family, is named after him.6

   The Spanish fleet under the command of Captain Alonso Morgado in 1824. won a victory over some slave traders and pirates, who came from Sulu. This event improved the Spanish naval supremacy in these waters. The following period was also marked by several Spanish naval victories, which led to a reduction in the Sultanate's maritime power.7

   During 1840s, besides Spanish colonial interests in the territory under the rule of Sulatanate of Sulu, interests among other world powers has increased, such as: France, Britain, Germany and the United States of America.8

Sultan Mohammad Pulalun Kiram

   Mohammad Pulalun Kiram (Pogdar) was the Sultan of Sulu in the period from 1844, until his death, in 1862. He was the son of the previous ruler of Sulu, Sultan Jamalul-Kiram I. He was regarded as capable administrator and a just ruler.9

   French fleet under Admiral Jean-Baptiste Cécille attacked the Jolo and after that, in 1844/1845, conducted a naval blockade of the island of Basilan, forcing the local leaders to recognize the sovereignty of France, on 13. January 1845. In this way, French forced the Sultanate of Sulu to formally cede Basilan for 100 000 piasters (500 000 francs), on 20. February 1845. Their intention was to create the naval base, similar to British base in Hong Kong. However, they gave up the project, as they were encountered by fierce resistance of the local population and the Spanish Empire. The Spanish also strongly opposed by diplomatic means, claiming that Basilan is part of their possessions in the Philippines. The French issued the proclamation on 5. August 1845, claiming that they have no longer interests in Basilan.10

   After a long period of mutual devastations and conflicts between the Spanish and the Sultanate of Sulu, in 1848. there has been a significant shift in favor of the Spanish interests. One of the main causes of this turning point, was remarkable technological advance of world powers and the emergence of new types of weapons. Especialy introduction of steamships in the Spanish Navy was of great importance. Establishment of the Spanish fortress Queen Isabella II (Fuerte Isabella Segunda Reina) in Basilan was also very important, as well as some other factors.11

   Strong Spanish fleet led by the Governor-General of the Philippines, Narciso Claveria, invaded in 1848. fort Balangingi on Tungkil, one of the Sultanate of Sulu islands. The fort was conquered, but the local commander managed to avoid capture. After that, the Spanish conquered Maluso on Basilan island.12

   During the year 1850, Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Antonio de Urbistondo, again attacked Balangingi on the island Tungkil and destroyed remaining fortifications. Later, on 28. February 1851, he attacked Јolo and completely destroyed and burned the town. On that occasion he seized 112 pieces of artillery.13

   The Spanish officially declared the annexation of the Sultanate of Sulu in April 1851, during the reign of Sultan Mohammad Pulalun Kiram. Only territory of North Borneo was exempt from this annexation.14

Sultan Jamalul A'Lam

   To the throne of Sultanate of Sulu came Sultan Jamalul A'Lam in 1862. He was son of the previous Sultan, Mohammad Pulalun Kiram. Sultan Jamalul A'Lam was the ruler of Sulu, until his death, in 1881. During his reign, there was a significant number of important events concerning Sultanate.15

   On 21. February 1876, after a series of unsuccessful attempts, the Spanish launched a large-scale attack on Jolo. Their contingent, led by Admiral Jose Malcampo, consisted of 9000 soldiers, 11 cargo ships, 11 gunboats, and 11 steamships. They conquered Jolo and established a Spanish garrison there. This garnison was led by Captain Pascual Cervera. He was assigned to the function of the military governor, which he held until December 1876. Until 1899. this position was held by a certain number of Spanish officers. The Spanish built fort in Jolo, but they did not feel safe there, because of the frequent attacks by the population of Sulu.16

   Sultan of Sulu signed a peace treaty with the Spanish on 22. July 1878. According to the Spanish version, it was transfer of the sovereignty over Sulu archipelago, while by version in Tausug language it was introducing a protectorate. After the signing of the peace, Sultan Jamalul A'Lam moved his court in Maymbung.17

   Also, there were some major events on the southern borders of the Sultanate of Sulu, during this period. In 1865, the American Consul to Brunei, Claude Lee Moses, concluded with the Sultanate of Sulu ten-year lease agreement on the North Borneo. Due to financial difficulties, he had to transfer his rights to the Austro-Hungarian consul in Hong Kong, baron Gustav von Overbeck. Sultan Jamalul A'Lam on 22. January 1878. signed an agreement with baron von Overbeck and British, brothers Alfred and Edward Dent. By terms of this agreement, the North Borneo given in a ten-year lease to the Company Dent and Oferbek. In return, the Sultanate received the necessary weapons and certain funds, which are paid annually. Due to the signing of the mentioned peace of 22nd July 1878, the property of Company Dent and Overbeck at the North Borneo was threatened.18

   In 1880. Overbeck transferred his rights to the Dent brothers. The British established in July 1881 British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd. In May 1882, when this association get the Charter of Queen Victoria, they formed the North Borneo Chartered Company. The company strengthened in this area, and stopped the spread of the Spanish sphere of influence to Borneo.19

Sultan Badarud-Din II

   Sultan Badarud-Din II was the son of Sultan Jamalul A'Lam. He came to the throne of Sulu after his father's death, in 1881. He ruled for three years. Sultan Badarud-Din II died on 22 February 1884, without male heir.20

Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II
(first reign)

   Jamalul-Kiram II was declared Sultan by his supporters in 1884, following the death of his brother, Sultan Badarud-Din II. It is believed that the earlier name of Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II was Amirul Kiram II. His reign was unsuccessfully challenged by the grandson of Sultan Shakirul-Lah, Datu (Prince) Aliud-Din. Because of that, Aliud-Din was forced to flee to the island Basilan. As a mediator between the Sultan and Aliud-Din appeared Harun Ar-Rashid (descendant of Alimud-Din by Datu Putong).21

Sultan Harun Ar-Rashid

   Spanish intrigue led to the arrival of the mentioned Harun Ar-Rashid at the Sultan's throne. He was declared Sultan of Sulu in Manila in 1886. Harun Ar-Rashid never gained the support of the majority of the population Sulu. When in 1894. became clear, that he is no longer necessary to the Spanish, he was forced to abdicate. He went to Palawan, where he died in 1899.22

   The Chinese who lived at Sulu Archipelago were supplying Sultanate with arms. It was used for fighting against the Spanish. In exchange, they took slaves and material goods. At that time Chinese prevailed in Sulu trade.23

   In April 1887. The Spanish suddenly attacked Maymbung, then capital of the Sultanate. On that occasion, they seized a large amount of weapons. Property of the local Chinese was destroyed, and they were deported to Jolo. In 1888, despite the fact that it was a leased territory, British proclaimed they protectorate in North Borneo.24

Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II
(second reign)

   In 1894. Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II managed to re-assert his authority in this monarchy. The Spanish finally admitted him as the Sultan of Sulu. Jamalul-Kiram II died on 7. June 1936.25

   During his rule, in 1895, the unit of the Sultanate of Sulu, led by prominent military leaders, brothers Datu Julkarnain and Datu Kalbi, attacked the Spanish troops in the Jolo. However, this attack was rejected by the combined forces of the Spanish Army and military units of their Filipino allies.26

   The Spanish have lost the Spanish - American War. Under the terms of the Paris Peace, 1898, they gave certain territories to the United States of America. Among these territories were the Philippines. Concerning these circumstances, U.S. Brigadier General John Coalter Bates made the agreement with the Sultan of Sulu Jamalul-Kiram II, on 26th August 1899. It is interesting that, under the terms of the agreement, although it acknowledges the supremacy of Americans, the Sultanate of Sulu remained full sovereignty over the North Borneo.27


   In the tumultuous period, as was the 19th century, the Sultanate of Sulu came in contact with various colonial powers of the time, such as: Spain, United Kingdom, France and the United States. These contacts were usually concerning conflicts between them, although there were some inter-state cooperation.

   Although the Sultanate of Sulu entered in the 19th century as an important regional entity, its influence in the region has decreased during this century. As in previous centuries, the Sultanate of Sulu led continual struggle with the world's colonial powers, but this time appeared some new factors. In the first place it was a more modern weapons, which world powers began to use. Appearance of steamships, for example, has had a major impact on the balance of power in the maritime domination. The Sultanate of Sulu haven't had industrial and economic base for the production or supply of modern weapons. Despite persistent and courageous struggle for freedom of the Sultans, the leaders, and the people of Sulu, the impact of this state in the region was gradually decreasing in the age of the industrial and technological revolution.



1. Frans Welman, Sabah, Borneo Trilogy, Book One, Volume 1, 2011. (further: Welman), 161; Keat Gin Ooi, Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1, 2004. (further: Ooi), 154; Vic Hurley, Swish of the Kris, the Story of the Moros, 2010 (further: Hurley), 121.

2. The History of Sulu, Division of Ethnology Publications, Volume 4, 1905, (further: The History of Sulu), 190 – 193; Sixto Y. Orosa, The Sulu Archipelago and its people, 1923, (further: Orosa), 29; Eufronio Melo Alip, Political and Cultural History of the Philippines: Since the British Occupation, 1949, 27; Ahmad Ibrahim, Sharon Siddique, Yasmin Hussain, Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian studies, Singapore 1985. (further: Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain), 50 - 51, 55; Ooi, 154; Welman, 161; Hurley, 121.

3. Orosa, 29; The History of Sulu, 193; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 50 – 51; Philippine studies, Volume 42, Manila 1994. (further: Philippine studies), 33.

4. Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Orosa, 29; The History of Sulu, 193; Philippine studies, 26, 33, 37; Gregorio F. Zaide, World History, 1994. (further: Zaide, World History), 311.

5. The History of Sulu, 193; Orosa, 29; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Clemencio Montecillo Bascar, Sultanate of Sulu: the unconquered kingdom, Western Mindanao State University, 2003. (further: Bascar), 19; Philippine studies, 26, 33, 37.

6. Orosa, 29; The History of Sulu, 193, 199; Bascar, 19; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Philippine studies, 33, 37.

7. The History of Sulu, 193.

8. Orosa, 29.

9. Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; The History of Sulu, 218; Orosa, 31; Philippine studies, 27, 33; Bascar, 19; Gémino H. Abad, Memories, visions, and scholarship, and other essays, University of the Philippines, Center for Integrative and Development Studies, 2001. (further: Abad), 106, 133; Samuel K. Tan, Filipino Muslim perceptions of their history and culture as seen through indigenous written sources, 2003. (further: Tan), 16.

10. Robert Aldrich, Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion, 1996, 75; Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: Volume 2, The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 1994, 27, 43; Jose Torres, John Nery, Into the mountain, 2001, 165; The History of Sulu, 199.

11. The History of Sulu, 199.

12. The History of Sulu, 199, 201, 204.

13. The History of Sulu, 206, 224.

14. The History of Sulu, 209 - 212.

15. Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Orosa, 31; The History of Sulu, 224, 233; Philippine studies, 33, 37.

16. Orosa, 32; The History of Sulu, 224, 248; Abad, 106, 133; Tan, 16.

17. The History of Sulu, 229, 232.

18. Philippine studies, 27 - 28; The History of Sulu, 225 – 226; Volker Schult, Wunsch und Wirklichkeit, Deutsch–philippinische Beziehungen im Kontext globaler Verflechtungen 1860–1945, Berliner Südostasien-Studien, Band 8, Berlin 2008. (further: Schult), 51 - 53.

19. Schult, 51 - 53.

20. Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Orosa, 33; Philippine studies, 33, 37; The History of Sulu, 237; Schult, 63; Tan, 16; Abad, 106.

21. Philippine studies, 30, 37; Orosa, 34 - 35, 107; Habib Jamasali Sharief Rajah Bassal Abdurahman, The Sultanate of Sulu: their dominion, 2002. (further: Abdurahman), 80; Abad, 106, 133; Schult, 63; Tan, 16.

22. Bascar, 19; Orosa, 34; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Schult, 63; Abad, 133; Philippine studies, 30, 33, 38.

23. Schult, 64.

24. Schult, 60, 64, 78; The History of Sulu, 241.

25. Orosa, 35, 107; Abdurahman, 80; Bascar, 19; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Philippine studies, 30; Tan, 16; Abad, 106, 133.

26. Gregorio F. Zaide, The pageant of Philippine history: political, economic, and socio-cultural, Volume 1, 1979, 556; Salah Jubair, Bangsamoro, 1999, 53.

27. The History of Sulu, 245; Philippine studies, 28; Orosa, 35, 37; Bascar, 87 – 88; Zaide, World History, 311.

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