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   Omukama – Hereditary Royal title of the Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom (Republic of Uganda). In Nyoro and some other languages it has meaning “King”. Its translation in English is same. Etymology of this term is not completely clear, because, it literally means “supreme milkman/milkbringer”. Plural of title Omukama is Abakama. Since 24. July 1993, Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom is His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I. His Majesty is head of the Royal House of Babiito (49th Omukama of the Kingdom Bunyoro Kitara and 27th Omukama in the Babiito Dynasty). His Majesty Omukama Solomon Iguru I is officially recognized and protected by the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda. By the Supreme Court of Uganda, His Majesty Omukama Solomon Iguru I is specifically recognized as the rightful King of Bunyoro-Kitara. Similar to most of other reigning Monarchs, the traditional Kings in Republic of Uganda currently serve as "cultural figures" or "traditional leaders" and are barred from engaging in partisan politics.95

   Ancestors of His Majesty Omukama Solomon Iguru I never renounced their rights, never abdicated the Kingdom and never ceded sovereignty. They suffered exile, rather than capitulate and concede anything, they maintained their original royal status and sovereign rights. This is very significant as His Majesty is not simply a constitutional King. He is also the heir to a Dynasty that has kept all its ancient rights intact.96

   In Constitution of the Republic of Uganda is specified role of traditional or cultural leader. Where a traditional leader or cultural leader exists in a region the traditional or cultural leader shall be the titular head of the Regional Government. He also shall be the titular head of the Regional Assembly and shall open, address and close the sessions of the Regional Assembly, as well as enjoy other benefits and privileges.97

   Royal Palace of Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, called Karuziika Palace, is located in Hoima. As a cultural head, the King is assisted by his Principal Private Secretary, a Cabinet of 21 Ministers and a Orukurato (Parliament).98




   Full royal title of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I is: By The Grace of God, Omukama of The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, Ruler of Hoima, Masindi, Kibaale, Buliisa, Kiryandongo, Kagadi and Kakumiro, The Grandson of Kabalega, The Healer, The Orphan Protector, The Hater of Rebellion, The Lion of Bunyoro, The Hero of Bunyoro, The Hero of Kabalega, etc. etc. etc. – 49th Omukama of The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, 27th Omukama in The Babiito Dynasty - The Sovereign Head and Grand Master of The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo and The Royal Order of Engabu, The Sovereign Head, Grand Master and Protector of The Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega, The Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns, Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross etc. etc. etc.99

   Omukama Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I, has abopted the title and syle of His Majesty The Omukama (King), whilst, earlier, the title and style of His Royal Highness The Omukama (King) was in use for The Bunyoro-Kitara Monarch, just like for other Ugandan Kings.

   His Majesty Omukama Solomon Iguru I was born on 18. June 1948. King's Empaako, traditional alternative name used by family, is Amooti. His Majesty inherited The Throne from his father, His Royal Highness Rukirabasaija Agatumba Omukama Sir Tito Gafagbusa Winyi IV C.B.E, Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara. In recent years, His Majesty Solomon Iguru I has significantly promoted and developed the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, such as establishing the institution of the Association of the Representatives of Bunyoro-Kitara (ARKBK).100

   Every year an “Empago’ ceremony is held celebrating the Coronation anniversary of The Omukama (King) and Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara. The celebration is held at the Royal Palace and all the Banyoro people (people of Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara) are invited to join. During this ceremony the King also beats the Royal Drums as a sign of his power and as a mean of signaling the people. The celebration contains singing, dancing, music and other activities.101

   Title of Omukama is also in use in Toro (or Tooro), traditional Kingdom in Republic of Uganda. Other variant of this title, known in Kingdom of Toro, is Mukama. Current Omukama of Toro, since 26. August 1995, is His Majesty King Oyo Nyimba Kabamba Iguru Rukidi IV. He belongs to the Babiito Dynasty, branch of Babiito Dynasty of Bunyoro – Kitara Kingdom. He is 13th Omukama of Toro.102

   In Ugandan traditional Kingdom of Ankole, title of the King was also Omukama, until 1901. After that year, King of Ankole was bearer of the title Omugabe. See also: King, Omugabe.103

   Omukama was also title of the hereditary traditional rulers of Kooki in Kingdom of Buganda (Republic of Uganda), until 1896. After that year, title Kamuswaga was used for Kooki rulers. See also: King.104




   Omukungu – See: Royal Order of Engabu; Order of the Shield and Spears.

   Omulangira – Title of the younger sons, grandsons, and male descendants of the Kabaka of Buganda Kingdom in the male line (Prince).105

   Omulerembera – Title of Prime Minister in Rwenzuru (Rwezunruru). It was part of Kingdom of Toro, until beginning of 20th century, and after that constituent Monarchy in Uganda.106

   Omumbejja - Title of the daughters, granddaughters and female descendants of the Kabaka of Buganda Kingdom in the male line (Princess).107

   Omumbere – This is title of the traditional ruler of Bakonjo in Republic of Uganda.108

   Omusana – Title of the Master of Ceremonies in the Kingdom of Toro (Republic of Uganda).109

   Omusinga – Title of the hereditary traditional ruler of Rwenzuru in Republic of Uganda. Since 19 October 2009, Omusinga of Rwenzuru is Irema-Ngoma I of the House of Abahira. Rwenzuru (Rwezunruru) was part of Kingdom of Toro, until beginning of 20th century, and after that period, constituent Monarchy in Uganda. In some periods, this Kingdom was not recognized by Republic of Uganda.110




   Omutongole – See: Abatongole; Order of the Shield and Spears.

   Omwami – Title of Chief in Kingdom of Buganda. In Burundi and Rwanda this is the title of the King.111

   Order – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo, Royal Order of Engabu, Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega, Royal Order of the Crown; Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns.

   Order of Distinction – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo.

   Order of Engabu – See: Royal Order of Engabu.

   Order of Omujwaara Kondo – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo.

   Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega - See: Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.

   Order of the Coronet wearer – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo.

   Order of the Crown – See: Royal Order of the Crown.

   Order of the Crown of Thorns – See: Omukama; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns; Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns.

   Order of The Lion and Black Cross – See: Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross.

   Order of The Lion, Crown and Shield – Order of Kingdom of Toro. It was founded by His Majesty King Rukirabasaija Sir George David Matthew Kamurasi Rukidi III in 1963. It is awarded in three classes: Grand Cross, Commander and Member.112




   Order of the Shield – See: Royal Order of Engabu.

   Order of the Shield and Spears – It was founded by Captain His Highness Kabaka (King) Sir Daudi Chwa II of Buganda Kingdom, on 8. August 1927. This Order was created to reward loyal services to the Kingdom of Buganda and bestowed on Bugandan subjects and foreign nationals alike. Awarded in three classes: Commander (CSS), Omutongole or Officer (OSS), and Omukungu or Member (MSS). The medal of the order was instituted on 26. May 1937.113

   Orphan Protector – “The Orphan Protector” (Mwebingwa, Mwebingwe) is part of the full royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. Mwebingwa also means: „He to whom people run for help and protection“, or „He to whom people run when in need“. See also: Omukama.114

   Paramount Chief – Frequent title in English language of traditional rulers in various countries. This title can be both hereditary and elective. Paramount Chief is the title of ruler of Kebu Yuu in Republic of Uganda. See also: Inzu, Rwot.115




   Parish Chiefs – See: Abemiruka.

   Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns - This is part of the full Royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty.116

   By Royal decision of His Majesty Solomon Iguru I, Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara, in 2012. are rewritten “the whole legal chapters and maintain of the Orders Order of the Crown of Thorns and Order of the Lion and the Black Cross under the Ecclesiastical jurisdiction and Patronage of The Apostolic Episcopal Church and the Royal Patronage of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I; with His Majesty Omukama Chwa II Kabalega name incorporate and the name of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I”. See also: Omukama; Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross.117

   Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross - Part of the full official title of Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I. See also: Omukama; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns.118




   Pokino – County of Buddu (Buganda Kingdom) is headed by the County Chief with title Pokino.119

   Prime Minister – See: Katikiro; Omuhikirwa; Omulerembera; Engazi; Jadipu.

   Prince – See: Crown Prince, Omulangira.

   Princess – See: Royal Princess; Omumbejja.

   Protector – See: Omukama; Orphan Protector; Sovereign Head, Grand Master and Protector of The Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross.

   Royal Order of Engabu – It is a single-grade Royal Order, within the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara. In English, the name of the Order means: Order of the Shield. It is awarded solely by The Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara. The Order was established in 2010, replacing the old Royal Order of The Crown. The name change was done to make sure, that the Order of the Crown and the Order of Omujwaara Kondo (Order of the Coronet Wearer) were not confused.120

   This is old Order of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. It is considered, that its roots are dating back roughly to the 17th century. Today, Motto of The Royal Order of Engabu is: “Cum Alus Pro Alus” in Latin (in English: With Others, For Others).121




   Royal Order of Engabu is junior to The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo, and senior to The Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega. The Order of Engabu is normally granted twice a year, once during the Empango ceremony (which most often is on June 11 each year) and the other on the birthday of The Omukama (His Majesty Solomon Iguru I's birthday is June 18).122

   Today, The Order is awarded for “All that makes for the spiritual and moral strengthening of mankind and Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom in particular, and those who promote work for humanity and charity, for the relief of persons in sickness, distress, suffering or danger”. Its eligibility is for any individual, above the age of 25.123

   Recipients of The Order of Engabu receive a breast star, that is 90 millimeters in diameter. This star is worn at Empango ceremonies or other appropriate formal occasions, and members of the order sit in a special place of honor during the Empango events.124

   This Order is inherited by the original grantee's eldest child of the same sex at the moment of the original grantee's death or renunciation of the honor. For male grantees, the honor passes by patrilineal primogeniture. For female grantees, the honor passes by matrilineal primogeniture.125




   There are several aspects of the award that recipients of the Order receive. First, all recipients are entitled to the style "The Most Honourable". However, persons entitled to an existing style that supersedes " The Most Honourable" will retain it within the Order's records. Second, a recipient is entitled to use the title of Omukungu (plural: Abakungu), or “Abakungu okusemera omu Engabu” (roughly: Chiefs worthy to be in Crown). This title is junior to Mujwaara Kondo. Official authorization is granted for a male recipient to translate Omujwaara Kondo into "Knight" in English and a female recipient may translate this into "Dame". Third, the post-nominal of "OEBKK" may be used after an honoree's name, which stands for (O)rder of the (E)ngabu of (B)unyoro-(K)itara (K)ingdom. The original recipient of the Order may use "1st" before the post-nominals (OEBKK) in order to show he is the first to receive the Order, his son who inherits the order may then use "2nd OEBKK", his son may use "3rd OEBKK" and so on.126




   Persons who receive this Order are also entitled to the right to display certain heraldic privileges. By authorization of His Majesty The Omukama, all Members of the Order, who desire to have heraldry are entitled to display supporters and top their helm with a basic coronet if they desire to signify their status as Members. See also: Sovereign Head of The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo and The Royal Order of Engabu.127

   Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo – It is the oldest and highest Royal Order of The Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom and is awarded solely by The Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara. It is a single-grade honor, separated into two classes. Class I is limited to other Royal Families of the world and heads of state, while Class II is open to all persons.128




   It is considered, that the first recipient of this Order was Kasaru, the interpreter of Omukama Rukidi of Bunyoro, who ruled in the late 15th century. Therefore, the Order is believed to be more than 500 years old. It was normal that recipients of the Order were awarded ownership of land and it was believed, that they obtained a special “divine power” called “mahano” with the admission into The Order.129

   Recipients of The Order were awarded an Ekondo (English: coronets) and other regalia, and had special seats during ceremonies of The Kingdom. Earlier, recipients were not allowed to eat “common food” like potatoes and beans. Instead, they were expected to follow a special diet, containing primarily: meat, poultry and other “finer” (rare) foods.130

   When awarded The Order, recipients obtain the title of "Omujwaara Kondo" (English: Coronet Wearer) and became an Abajwaara Kondo (Name for a group of Omujawaara Kondo's). It was also normal to award recipients with elaborate headdresses made from beard and skin of the columbus monkey.131




   The Order has, compared to European standards, more characteristics of a title of nobility (The award being a title and a coronet) then of an Order of Chivalry. When the British conquered the Kingdom however, the Bunyoro Agreements of 1933. and 1955. between The Kingdom and the British Government recognized the Omukama's power to award this ancient Honor, which was then classified as an "Order of Distinction".132

   Uganda gained its independence from Britain in 1962. His Royal Highness Rukirabasaija Agatumba Omukama Sir Tito Gafagbusa Winyi IV C.B.E. continued to award this Honor until 1967, when the Kingdoms in Uganda were abolished by dictator Milton Obote. The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara was restored on June 11, 1993. with the enthronement of His Majesty Solomon Iguru I, son of His Majesty Omukama Sir Winyi IV of Bunyoro. After the enthronement, similar to the other traditional honors of Bunyoro-Kitara, the Omujwaara Kondo is once again being awarded.133

   Originally, when being awarded The Order, recipients would swear an oath of loyalty to The King, and drink a bowl of milk with The King, but now the drinking of milk is optional. How the tradition of drinking milk started is not known, but it is believed to have ties with the former large herds of Ankole cattle, which were an important part of Bunyoro economy, history and culture.134




   The Order was revised on March 22, 2010 by His Majesty Omukama Solomon Iguru I, in an attempt to modernize it. Since then the Honor has been updated to be a breast star that is 90 millimeters in diameter. This star is worn at Empango ceremonies or other appropriate formal occasions, and member of The Order sits in a special place of Honor during the Empango events. Traditionally The Order was only given to men, but since its restoration in 2010, women are also allowed admittance into The Order. The traditional ban on eating beans, potatoes and other vegetables has also been removed. Also recipients must be minimum 25 years of age. The Honor is normally granted two times a year, once during the Empango ceremony (which most often is on June 11 each year) and the other on His Majesty Solomon Iguru I's birthday on June 18. The Order is a very high Honor.135

   There are several unique aspects of the Award that recipients of the Order receive in contrast to other world orders. First, all recipients are entitled to the style "The Most Honourable". However, persons entitled to an existing style that supersedes "The Most Honourable" will retain it within the Order's records. Second, a recipient is entitled to use the title of Omujwaara Kondo. Official authorization is granted for a male recipient to translate Omujwaara Kondo into "Crown Knight" in English and a female recipient may translate this into "Crown Dame". Third, the post-nominal of "OOKB" may be used after an honoree's name, which stands for (O)rder of the (O)mujwaara (K)ondo of (B)unyoro-Kitara Kingdom.136




   Persons who receive The Honor are also entitled to the right to display certain heraldic privileges. By authorization of His Majesty The Omukama, all Members of The Order who desire to have heraldry are entitled to display supporters and top their helm with a basic coronet if they desire to signify their status as Members.137

   In accordance with both the historical traditions of The Order of The Omujwaara Kondo and its modern statutes, The Honor is inherited by the original grantee's eldest child of the same sex at the moment of the original grantee's death or renunciation of The Honor. For male grantees, The Honor passes by patrilineal primogeniture (from male to male) and for female grantees, The Honor passes by matrilineal primogeniture (from female to female). See also: Sovereign Head of The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo and The Royal Order of Engabu.138

   Royal Order of The Crown – It was formerly kown as The Order of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom (Uganda). This Order was replaced by The Royal Order of Engabu (Order of The Shield) in 2010. This change was implemented, to avoid confusion between the names of The Order of The Crown and The Order of Omujwaara Kondo (Order of The Coronet Wearer). See also: Royal Order of Engabu.139

   Royal Princess – Royal Princess is title of female member of Royal Family. In Bunyoro-Kitara Royal Family (Babiito Dynasty) Her Royal Highness Princess Masamba Nkwanzi OOKB, OEBKK, GCCK, daughter of His Majesty Omukama (King) Solomon Iguru I, is bearer of this title.140




   Rukirabasaija – This title means “The greatest of men”. It is one of the principal titles of the Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. It is also used in Kingdom of Toro. See: Omukama.141

   Ruler – “Ruler of Hoima, Masindi, Kibaale, Buliisa and Kiryandongo” (Nkyanungi, Nyakanungi) is part of the full Royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. In Nyoro language Nkyanungi or Nyakanungi means also: „Good Ruler“. See also: Omukama, Kyabazinga.142

   Rwodhi – This is title of all male descendents of Rwoth Obima (King) in Alur (Union of Alur Chiefdoms). “Rwodhi” is plural. See also: Rwoth Obima.143

   Rwot – Hereditary title of the traditional ruler (Paramount Chief) of Acholi in Uganda. Since 15. January 2005, Rwot of Acholi is His Highness David Onen Acana II of the House of Payira. See also: Won Lobo; Rwoth; Rwoth Obima.144

   Rwoth – This is hereditary title (sometimes also translated as King) of the traditional ruler of Jonam (Jonam Koch) Chiefdom in Republic of Uganda. Rwoth of Jonam was, since 1. March 2008, Marcellino Olar Ker IV, although now ousted in March 2013 for self imposition over the Ragem people. See also: Rwot; Rwoth Obima.145

   Rwoth Obima – Hereditary title of the traditional ruler (also translated as King) of Alur (Union of Alur Chiefdoms) in Republic of Uganda is Rwoth Obima, Rwoth Obimo, or Rwoth. Nyathi Rwot is lower title (leader subjugated to Rwoth Obima). Since August 2000, Rwoth Obima of Alur is His Highness King Phillip Olarker Rauni III . See also: Nyathi Rwot; Rwodhi; Rwot; Rwoth.146

   Rwoth Obimo – See: Rwoth Obima.




   Sabaganzi – Title of “the official maternal uncle of the Kabaka” in Kingdom of Buganda.147

   Sekibobo – The title of the county chief of Kyagwe (Kyaggwe) in Kingdom of Buganda is Sekibobo (or Ssekiboobo).148

   Sovereign Head, Grand Master and Protector of The Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega – This is part of the full Royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. See: Omukama, Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.149

   Sovereign Head of The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo and The Royal Order of Engabu – Part of the full Royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. See also: Omukama, Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo, Royal Order of Engabu.150

   Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross – By Royal decision of His Majesty Solomon Iguru I, Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara, in 2012. are rewritten “the whole legal chapters and maintain of the Orders Order of The Crown of Thorns and Order of The Lion and The Black Cross under the Ecclesiastical jurisdiction and Patronage of The Apostolic Episcopal Church and the Royal Patronage of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I; with His Majesty Omukama Chwa II Kabalega name incorporate and the name of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I”. See also: Omukama; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross.151

   Ssaabalangira – Title of “Chief of The Royal Princes”, used in The Kingdom of Buganda.152

   Ssaabasajja – This is honorific style of Kabaka, King of The Kingdom of Buganda. See also: Kabaka.153

   Ssebwama – County of Busiro in Kingdom of Buganda is headed by the County Chief titled Ssebwama.154

   Ssekiboobo – See: Sekibobo.

   Sub-County Chiefs – See: Abagomborozi.




   Sub-Parish Chiefs – See: Abatongole.

   Tabingwa – This is hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Luuka in Uganda (one of the Busoga confederates). Current Tabingwa of Luuka, since, 11 February 1995, is Willington Tabingwa Nabwana of the House of Tabingwa.155

   Traditional or cultural leader – See: Omukama.

   Village Chiefs – See: Bakuru B’emigongo; Abatongole.

   Wakhooli – See: Wakooli.

   Wakooli – Hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Bukooli in Uganda (one of the Busoga confederates) is Wakooli or Wakhooli. Since 11. February 1995, Wakooli of Bukooli is Chief David Muluuya Kawunye of the House of Wakoli.156

   Won Lobo – Formerly, “Won Lobo” was part of title of Rwot of Acholi. It literally means “Guardian of the land”. See also: Rwot.157

   Won Nyaci – This is title of the elective traditional ruler of Lango in Republic of Uganda. This title is created in 1957. Won Nyaci is “ceremonial constitutional head of the district to be elected by the district council”. Since 10. December 2005, Won Nyaci (traditional ruler) of Lango is Paramount Chief Yosam Odur-Ebii.158

   Zibondo – This is hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Bulamogi in Uganda (one of the Busoga confederates). The Zibondo of Bulamogi, since 3. September 2008, was Prince Edward Columbus Wambuzi of the House of Zibondo of Bulamogi, who has assumed the title and office of The Kyabazinga (King) of The Busoga Kingdom, which is still disputed. See also: Kyabazinga.159






Author:
Aleksandar Bachko,
Sub-County Chief


Editor:
Reverend Father Deacon
Hadzi Nenad M. Jovanovich,
Representative in Serbia,
County Chief


Belgrade, Serbia 2013.

SOURCES AND
LITERATURE



1. John Beattie, Bunyoro, An African Kingdom, Case studies in Cultural Anthropology (further: Beattie, Bunyoro), 41; Bunyoro Kitara Kingdom – General Information (http://www.scribd.com/doc/123236020/2013-Bunyoro-Kitara-Kingdom-General-Information), 3; Bunyoro-Kitara (http://www.bunyoro-kitara.org/); ARKBK Representations (http://www.arkbk-clbg.org/5.html); ARKBK Bunyoro-Kitara (http://www.arkbk-clbg.org/11.html); ARKBK Structure (http://www.arkbk-clbg.org/4.html); The Constitution of Uganda, 15th April, 1966, 138 – 139; Laws of Uganda, Volume 1, 177 – 178; Statutory instruments, Part III, 1962, 2868; The Uganda independence order in Council 1962, 124.

2. Royal Ark, Buganda (http://www.royalark.net/Uganda/buganda.htm).

3. Royal Ark, Buganda.

4. Alfred Tucker, Eighteen years in Uganda & East Africa, 1970, 286; A handbook of the Uganda protectorate, 1920, 336; Beattie, Bunyoro, 41; Bunyoro Kitara Kingdom – General Information, 3; Bunyoro-Kitara; ARKBK Representations; ARKBK Bunyoro-Kitara; ARKBK Structure.

5. Royal Ark, Buganda.

6. Royal Ark, Buganda.

7. Buganda, Cultural Administration. (http://www.buganda.or.ug/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=173&Itemid=129)

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109. Royal Ark, Toro.

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112. Royal Ark, Toro.

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119. Buganda, Cultural Administration.

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121. Royal Order of Engabu - Flyer.

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125. Royal Order of Engabu - Flyer; Wikipedia, Order of Engabu.

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153. Royal Ark, Buganda.

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