Aleksandar V. Bachko &
Rev. Fr. Dn. Hadzi Nenad M. Jovanovich
ABOUT SOME CONNECTIONS
BETWEEN THE GEORGIA AND
THE BALKANS - LOWER DANUBE REGION
His Royal Highness Crown Prince Davit of Georgia
Royal Prince of Kartli (Batonishvili)
Hereditary Prince of Mukhrani and Mukhran Batoni
Head of the Bagrationi Dynasty and Head of the Royal House of Georgia
Sovereign Head and Grand Master of
The Order of the Eagle of Georgia and the Seamless Tunic of Our Lord Jesus Christ
Grand Master of The Order of Saint Queen Tamar
Grand Master of The Order of the Crown of Georgia
Its a commonly known fact, that the majority of the Georgian Nation is of the Orthodox Faith. This Religion is what bounds them, among other nations, with the peoples of the Balkans and the region of Lower Danube (Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians, Romanians...).
However, it is less known that the Georgians and the peoples of the Balkans and the region of Lower Danube are connected by other, primarily historical, spiritual and cultural ties, for centuries. Some of these connections will be briefly treated in this paper.
IN THE ANCIENT TIMES
Since antic times, there were cultural and historical conections between peoples of Balkans and Georgia. There are proofs about contacts between ancestors of contemporary Greeks and Georgians. It is expecionaly important for this issue, that areas of Georgia and Balkans were parts of Roman State (or being under great influence of Rome).1
Balkans were for centuries, completely or partially, parts of Roman State. There were number of important Roman cities in this peninsula, and some of Roman Emperors were born in that area.2
Roman conquests and influence were primarly concerning western parts of contemporary Georgia – antic Colchis (Pontus). That area was part of Roman State for long time, and certain Roman influences were noticed in other parts of contemporary Georgia.3
ABOUT CERTAIN CONNECTIONS
DURING THE MIDDLE AGES
Cultural and spiritual influences of Byzantine Empire, which were felt significaly outside the borders of that state, brought Orthodox Christianity to Georgians, as well as certain peoples of Balkans (besides Greeks, to Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians...). In some periods, Byzantine Empire was incorporating certain areas of Balkans and Georgia.4
Among most important Georgian cultural monuments on Balkans certainly are two orthodox monasteries, which will be described in following lines.
Iviron monastery is located on Mount Athos. Hierarchically, it is the third monastery of Athos “Monastic Republic”. Iviron is founded in the end of 10th century, on ruins of Clement monastery. At first, it was dedicated to Saint John The Baptist. Founders of Iviron were Georgian Saints: John the Iberian, Euthymius the Athonite and Gabriel the Iberian.5
Name of this monastery was formed after old Greek name for Georgia and for Georgian people. Iviron was only Georgian monastery at Mount Athos. Main church of this monastery is dedicated to Dormition of the Mother of God.6
During the 14th century, Iviron was plundered by Catalonian pirates. This monastery was repaired by generous help of rulers of Georgia, Byzantine Emperors and nobility, as well as Serbian Kings.7
In later period, Georgian rulers and nobility continued to be large donors of this monastery. One of main patrons of Iviron was Georgian Ashotan I, Prince of Mukhrani of Bagration Dynasty (died in 1561). It is important to mention, that he was the brother of a direct male line ancestor of incumbent Head of the Royal House of Georgia, His Royal Highness Crown Prince Davit Bagrationi Mukhrani of Georgia.8
During the 19th century, there was a significant decrese of number of Georgian monastic brotherhood. In 1903. there were in total 51 Georgian monks at Mount Athos, and in 1912. there were 53 of them. Last Georgian monk in Iviron died in the mid 20th century (in 1955). Since then, monastic brotherhood of this monastery is completely Greek.9
Along with other Orthodox monasteries of Mount Athos, Iviron is placed on UNESCO World Heritage list. Until this day, in The Iviron Monastery is kept a large number of old Georgian manuscripts.10.
Bachkovo Monastery is located in southern part of Bulgaria, more precisely south of Asenovgrad, at the slope of Rodops mountins. In Georgian, this monastery is called Petritsoni (bulgarized form is Petrich).11
This is second largest monastery in Bulgaria (largest is Rila Monastery). Its main church is dedicated to Dormition of the Mother of God, and minor churches to Saint Michael The Archangel and Saint Nicolas. It is important to mention, that Bachkovo Monastery is directly subordinate to the Holy Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.12
Monastery was founded in 1083, by Gregory Pakourianos (Bakuriani), along with his brother Abas. Gregorius was prominent Byzantine polititian and military leader of Georgian origin. Bachkovo Monastery represents unique amalgam of Georgian, Bulgarian and Byzantine (Greek) culture.13
Although some sources, as Ana Komnina, are claiming that Gregory Pakourianos was Armenian, he personaly stated, that he was Georgian (Iberian). His Georgian ancestry was also comfirmed by some of his contemporaries, as Matthew of Edessa.14
There was also a school In Bachkovo Monastery, founded by Gregory Pakourianos. In early period of its existance, this Monastery was important place of Georgian – Byzantine cultural conections. In 14th century, Bachkovo Monastery was under patronage of Bulgarian Emperor Ivan Alexander. Today, it presents one of most important Orthodox heritage sites in Bulgaria.15
EMPRESS MARIA BAGRATION
OF GEORGIA (ALANIA)
Maria (Martha) was a daughter of Georgian ruler Bagrat IV Bagrationi and his wife Borena of Alania. She was born in 1053. At that time, she was second in line for the throne, after her brother, future ruler George II. At the age of five, she was sent to Constantinople, in order to get appropriate education, under the patronage of Byzantine Empress Theodora. However, Empress soon died, so Maria came back to Georgia.16
Maria has married the son of Emperor Constantine X Doukas, heir to the Throne and future Byzantine Emperor, Michael VII Doukas (in 1065). This marriage was unusual for that time, because heirs to the Throne of Byzantine Empire were marrying almost exclusively Byzantine Princesses. Maria’s marriage was very rare exception.17
Michael VII Doukas came to the Throne in 1067, after the death of his father, Emperor Constantine X Doukas. Empress Maria had, with her husband, son Constantine Doukas (future Byzantine co-ruler). He was born about 1074.18
In 1078. were two uprisings in Byzantine Empire, at the same time. One was led by Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder, and other by Nikephoros Botaneiates. These uprisings resulted by downfall of Michael VII Doukas. After leaving the throne, he became monk in the Monastery of Stoudios. Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder was defeted by his rival Nikephoros Botaneiates. New Byzantine Emperor became Botaneiates, under name Nikephoros III.19
Empress Maria was forced to retreat to monastery, but she didn’t become a nun. When the wife of the new Emperor Nikephoros III died, he decided to marry Empress Maria. She agreed to marry, under condition, that her son from first marrige, Constantine Doukas, becomes the Heir to the Throne. Nikephoros accepted this condition, but later changed his opinion.20
Emperor Nikephoros III was deposed in 1081, when the new ruler became Alexios I Komnenos. Empress Maria took part in this event, on the side of Alexios. Same year, her son Constantine Doukas became co-ruler and Heir to the Throne.21
However, soon after John, son of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos was born (future Emperor John II Comnenus), Constantine Doukas lost his position of co-ruler and Heir to the Throne. In spite of that, relationships between Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Constantine Doukas remained relativly good.22
Maria was forced to became a nun, after these events. For some time she remained in a monastery, and after that, she moved in Mangana Palace in Constantinople. There she lived until her son’s death, in 1095. After that, she left for monastery, where she died in 1118.23
Empress Maria Bagrationi was remembered as very active person, among Byzantine ruling circle. Also, her exceptional beauty and her generosity (especially in last period of her life) were remembered. Among others, of great importance are her generous donations to Georgian monastery Iviron on Mount Athos. Empress Maria Bagrationi played a very important role in connections between The Byzantine Empire and Georgia.24
INDICATIONS OF SOME TIES IN
EARLY PERIOD OF NEMANJICH DYNASTY
About the existance of strong spiritual ties between Serbia and Georgia in 12th and 13th century, testifies one remarkable detail in a description of the repose and funeral of Saint Symeon the Myrrh-streaming (Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja), writen by his son, Saint Sava. Saint Symeon died in The Hilandar Monastery at Mount Athos, in 1199.
In his work “Life of Saint Symeon Nemanja”, written in 1208, Saint Sava describes the funeral of his father, stating:
“And so, many peoples than came to bow to him and to chant at his Requiem service with great honor. The Greeks sung first, then Iberians (Georgians), after that Russians, after them Bulgarians, and then us (Serbs), his collected flock”.24a
In this first hand source is a testimony, about the special place and role of the Georgian monks of Mount Athos, during the funeral of the former Serbian ruler and founder of The Nemanjich Dynasty, because they (Iberians - Georgians) were singing at his Requiem right after the Greeks, and before the Russians, Bulgarians and Serbs. This is a first grade testimony about the relationship, between the Georgian Iviron Monastery and Serbian Hilandar Monastery at Mount Athos, as well as the consciousness in the medievial Serbia about the high rank, antiquity and importance of The Georgian Church within the Orthodox ecumene.
DURING THE MODERN PERIOD
During the modern period, Georgia and countries of the Balkans, sometimes were under domination of the same state. It was The Ottoman Empire. Despite brave and decisive resistance of Orthodox Christian peoples, Turks managed to conquer most of the Balkans, and in some periods brought some of Georgian Kingdoms and Duchies to vasal status.25
SAINT ANTHIM THE IBERIAN
He was born in 1650. in the region of Samtskhe in southern Georgia. His parents were John and Maria, and at his baptism he got the name Andrew. He had a great education. He spoke several languages: Greek, Romanian, Old Slavic, Arabic, Turkish, and others. He also achived significant knowledge about theology, literature and natural sciencies. He was very gifted concerning fine arts.26
Anthim was following the Georgian ruler Archil II on his trip to Russia. On the way back to Georgia, he was captured by Dagestanian bandits. He was relieved by efforts of Patriarch Dositius of Jerusalem. Anthim was afterwards in Patriarch’s service. He had improved his spiritual education, at that period.27
His paintings, gravures and caligraphy were well known. In 1691, that was the main reason, for Prince Constantin Brancoveanu (1688 - 1714), to invitate Anthim to Wallachia. After his arrival, Anthim founded printing office. He managed to improve significally printing in that country.28
Anthim was appointed as Hegumen (Abbot) of The Snagov Monastery in Wallachia (1694), where he also founded a printing press. In 1705, he was appointed as an Orthodox Bishop in the town Ramnicu Valcea in Oltenia (Litlle Wallachia).29
During 1708, Anthim the Iberian was appointed as the Orthodox Metropolitan of Hungary – Wallachia, which was accepted with happiness among believers. He was always a patriot. His influence led to building of more than twenty churches and monasteries. Among these sacral objects, most important was All Saints Monastery in Bucharest. In 1709. he founded a printing press in Tbilisi.30
When in 1714. Turks executed the Wallachian Prince Constantin Brancoveanu, and soon after that murdered Prince Stefan Cantacuzino (1714 - 1716), Phanariote Nicholas Mavrocordatos became the ruler of Wallachia.31
After this, Metropolitan Anthim gathered a group of patriotic Wallachian boyars, who wanted to free their country from the Turks. With their help, Anthim tried to minimize the growing influence of Phanariotes (at that time supported by the Turks). However, Nicholas demanded that Anthim denounces his Metropolitan office, which Anthim refused.32
Then Nicholas accused Metropolitan Anthim to Patriarch Jeremia III of Constantinople, that he was calling the people to rebelion, and so was not worthy of being a Metropolitan or a monk. This was used as a reason for Anthim’s defrockment, loss of his monastic status and being anathematized.33
Nicolas was not pleased with that, so he expeled Anthim from Wallachia to Saint Catherine's Monastery at Mount Sinai. On his way to Sinai, Anthim was killed by the Turkish soldiers at Edirne (on September 14th 1716).34
In The Romanian Orthodox Church, the canonization of Metropolitan Saint Anthim the Iberian occured during 1992. His feast day is on September 14th in The Romanian, and on June 13th in The Georgian Orthodox Church.35
(VILLAGE IN SERBIA)
During the Turkish domination over Balkans, the could have been some minor imigrations of the Georgian population to this region. These migrational processes are not yet fully researched. Brief review of one possible migration of the Georgians to the Balkans is represented in following lines.
In some contemporary texts is written, that in the village of Veliki Izvor near Zajechar was settled „about fifteen families of Georgians from distant Caucasus“.36
Village Veliki Izvor is located near the town of Zajechar in the eastern Serbia (north – east from that town), near the Bulgarian border. Population of Veliki Izvor is nowadays almost exclusively Serbian.37
Ancestors of the families living in Veliki Izvor came from different areas, mostly from Teteven in Bulgaria (in some literature mistakenly is written: „Tetovo“) and, „according the tradition... from Volga (?)“. Ancestry from banks of that Russian river is claimed by family Uzunovatz and Lilikovski family (earlier family nickname - Troshanovski). There are not known details about the mentioned arrival of Georgian families. It is not known, what are their contemporary surnames, or when and from what settlements their ancestors came to Veliki Izvor.38
Intensive emigration from Veliki Izvor during past centuries is observed. Ancestors of almost entire village Dublje near Svilajnatz (area of Resava in eastern Serbia) came from Veliki Izvor (as well as from neighbouring Zajechar and Mali Izvor), in the end of 18th and in the beggining of 19th century. „Over 200 families“ came from Veliki Izvor to the town of Zajechar. Migrated families from Veliki Izvor were also present in nearby village of Vrazhogrnci. No families with traditions of their Georgian origins were noticed in Dublje, nor in Vrazhogrnci.39
BALKANS MILITARY CAMPAIGN OF
PRINCE PETER BAGRATION - MUKHRANI
Another member of the ancient and prominent Georgian Dynasty Bagration – Mukhrani left the significant mark in historical relationships between the peoples of Balkans and Georgia. His name was Prince Peter Bagration.
Prince Peter was one of the prominent members of Bagration Dynasty. He was born in The Georgian Kingdom Kartli – Kakheti, on July 10th 1765. He was the son of Prince Ivan Alexandrovich Bagration – Mukhrani.40
Same as his father, who was a colonel, Prince Peter joined Russian Army. He participated in a number of wars and campaigns, as: Russian – Circassian war, Russian – Turkish war (1787 - 1792), suppressing of Kościuszko's uprisig, as well as Suvorov's Italian and Swiss military campaign. Bagration was very successful, so he continualy advanced through the military ranks. In 1799. he was already general – major.41
During the war the against French Army, in 1805, he managed to suppress the attack of marshal Murat's much more numerous army. Prince Peter got the higher rank of lieutenant - general. He participated in the Battle of Austerlitz, against Napoleon.42
Participation of Prince Peter Bagration in Russian – Turkish war (1806 - 1812) is of great importance for this research. During this war, the Prince was leading a military campaign against the Turks on lower Danube and the Balkans. In August 1809, with his army, Bagration successfully crossed Danube and conquered most of Dobruja area, which was a part of The Ottoman Empire then (nowadays partly in Bulgaria and partly in Romania).43
Prince Peter Bagration began the siege of the town Silistra (today in Bulgaria), but he had to quit, after the arrival of numerous Turkish troops. At that point, he left Balkans, and across the Danube went to Bessarabia. He was promoted to general of infantry.44
Bagration – Mukhrani was a commander of the left wing of Russian Army against Napoleon's troops, in the Battle of Borodino (September 7th 1812). He was gravely wounded and passed away (on September 24th 1812).45
After the fall of Soviet Union, at the end of 20th century, Georgia became an independent state again. At that period, Georgia established diplomatic relations with Balkan states.46
Nowadays, Greece is the only Balkan country (with exception of Turkey), with a significant Georgian diaspora. According to unofficial information, in Greece lives and works about 200 000 Georgian citizens. They are mainly located in: Athens, Thessaloniki, settlement of Nafplio and the island of Crete. It is considered, that about 100 000 ethnic Greeks migrated from Georgia to Greece. Nowadays about 27 400 ethnic Georgians are living in Greece.47
ABOUT CERTAIN ACTIVITIES OF
HRH PRINCE DAVIT
Actions of HRH Prince Davit Mukhrani Batonishvili Head of The Royal House of Georgia and His associates are of great importance for contemporary humanitarian, cultural and spiritual connections between the Georgian people and peoples of Balkans (especially the Serbian people).48
As soon as HRH Prince Davit heard about the catastrophic floods in Serbia, Republika Srpska and neighbouring countries, in May 2014, he decided to help the affected people.49
At that time, HRH Prince Davit appealed to the world public, to help the affected, by donating to the humanitarian funds. As Chief and Grand Master, His Royal Highness especialy apeled to the Knights and Dames of The Order of The Crown of Georgia, The Order of Saint Queen Tamar and The Order of the Eagle of Georgia and the Seamless Tunic of Our Lord Jesus Christ, to donate to the suffering people of Serbia.50
HRH Prince Davit made a significant step further in helping the flood victims by making this appeal: “All of our Knights and Dames, who find in their hearts to offer their immediate and concrete help in this instance, will be upgraded in their ranks of Our Royal Orders, as a sign of Our Royal appreciation and gratitude, for their love and help for the distressed people of Serbia!”.51
Spiritual, cultural and monarchistic ties of HRH Prince Davit with Serbia and other Balkan countries are older. In October 2011, HRH Prince Davit awarded His All Holiness, Bartholomew I, Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch, and in December of the same year His Holiness the Archbishop of Pech, Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovtzi, and Serbian Patriarch Irinej, with the highest Order of The Royal House of Georgia, The Grand Collar of The Order of the Eagle of Georgia and the Seamless Tunic of Our Lord Jesus Christ.52
Among prominent members of The Order of the Eagle of Georgia and the Seamless Tunic of Our Lord Jesus Christ are also HRH Prince Vladimir Karageorgevich of Serbia and Yugoslavia and HRH Brigita Karageorgevich of Serbia and Yugoslavia.53
In 2016. HRH Prince Aleksandar Pavlov Karageorgevich of Serbia and Yugoslavia passed away. He was also one of the prominent members of this Order. Late Prince Aleksandar was the Rector for Serbia of The Order of the Eagle of Georgia and the Seamless Tunic of Our Lord Jesus Christ, as well as The Order of Saint Queen Tamar.54
His Grace The Right Reverend k.k. Irinej (Dobrijević) Bishop of the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Eastern America (previously Bishop of Australia and New Zealand) is the Protector and Spiritual adviser of The Order for Australia and New Zealand.55
Members of The Order of the Eagle of Georgia and the Seamless Tunic of Our Lord Jesus Christ are also His Grace Iakovos (Sofroniadis), Metropolitan of Princes Islands, Ipertimos and Exarch of The Propontis, as well as His Grace Metropolitan Gennadios (Stantzios) of the Holy Archdiocese of Botswana.
Vice Rector of the Delegation for Serbia, of The Royal Orders of Georgia, is Dipl. Ing. Aleksandar O. Djurdjev. Chaplain for Serbia of The Royal Orders of Georgia is Reverend Father Deacon Hadzi Nenad M. Jovanovich.56
Other Balkan countries are also represented in Orders of Knighthood of The Royal House of Georgia. Head of the Delegation for Greece of The Order of the Eagle of Georgia and the Seamless Tunic of Our Lord Jesus Christ, and The Order of Saint Queen Tamar is HE Baron Tonis Breidel Hadjidemetriou.57
Head of the Delegation of these Orders for Bosnia, Herzegovina, Dalmatia and Slavonia is Mr. Alexander Wolfgang Baron Von Wallinger Zu Schoendorff. Vice Rector of these Delegations is Mr. Oliver Wagner de Pikkemaat .58
Among former and contemporary Balkan Royalty, who are Members of The Order of the Eagle of Georgia and the Seamless Tunic of Our Lord Jesus Christ, are: HM Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria, HM Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria, HRH Crown Prince Nikola II Petrovich Njegosh of Montenegro, HRH Crown Prince Leka I Zogu of Albania, HRH Prince Nicolae Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen of Romania, HIH Princess Nilufer of Turkey and HRH Princess Jelisaveta Karageorgevich of Serbia and Yugoslavia.
About the firm ties of The Royal House of Georgia with some Royal Houses of Balkan countries, testifies the fact, that Bulgarian Tsar Simeon II is the godfather of HRH Prince Irakli Bagration – Mukhrani of Georgia, the older brother of HRH Prince Davit, Head of The Royal House of Georgia.
Extraordinary care and respect, that HRH Prince Davit Mukhrani Batonishvili, Head of The Royal House of Georgia is showing to the region of the Balkans, also is shown by attending the Royal wedding in Tirana, on October 10th 2016. On that day, HRH Prince Leka II Zogu of Albania married Ms. Elia Zaharia. There were more than 300 members of Royalty and Aristocracy from Europe and other continents on this wedding. Among them, there were members of the Royal Families of Balkans, as: HRH Crown Prince Aleksandar Karageorgevich of Serbia and Yugoslavia, HRH Princess Katarina Karageorgevich of Serbia and Yugoslavia, HRH Crown Prince Nikola II Petrovich Njegosh of Montenegro, HRH Crown Princess Margareta Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen of Romania, HRH Prince Radu of Romania, HRH Princess Irene Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg of Greece and Denmark, HRH Prince Michael Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg of Greece and Denmark and HRH Princess Marina Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg of Greece and Denmark.
It is also important, to mention some facts about the genealogy of one of the members of The Royal House of Bagration – Mukhrani, and a close relative of HRH Prince Davit, HRH Prince Bagrat of Bagrationi-Mukhraneli and of Bavaria (12 January 1949 – 20 March 2017). Prince Bagrat was the son of HRH Prince Irakli Bagration – Mukhrani (grandfather of Prince Davit) and Dona Maria de las Mercedes of Bavaria and Bourbon, Infanta of Spain and Princess of Bavaria. Through his mother’s line, Prince Bagrat was a descendant of many European (including Balkan) rulers and dynasts. Among his ancestors were Byzantine Emperors, as well as Grand Princes of Serbian Vukanovich Dynasty, which brings The Royal House of Bagration – Mukhrani in an indirect connection with The Serbian Imperial Nemanjich Dynasty.
Along with the basic tie, which is connecting the Georgians with several Balkan nations, Orthodox Christianity, some other (historical, cultural and spiritual) connections are also confirmed. Unfortunately, it is not adequately paid attention in literature, on many of these connections.
Making contributions to better knowledge about these connections, are certainly great challenges for contemporary researchers in: Georgia, Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and other countries.
Cultural, spiritual and humanitarian ties between the people of Georgia and some of the Balkan countries (firstly Serbia), are getting some new dimensions nowadays. We believe, that this is mainly the merit of HRH Prince Davit Mukhrani Batonishvili, Head of The Royal House of Georgia, and His associates.
Aleksandar V. Bachko
Reverend Father Deacon Hadzi Nenad M. Jovanovich
Chaplain for Serbia of
The Order of the Eagle of Georgia and the Seamless Tunic of Our Lord Jesus Christ
The Order of Saint Queen Tamar
The Order of The Crown of Georgia
SOURCES AND LITERATURE
1. Revaz Gachechiladze, The New Georgia, Space, Society, Politics, New York 1995. (further: Gachechiladze), 18 – 19; Нова енциклопедија у боји, I, А – К, Вук Караџић, Larousse, Београд – Љубљана 1977. (further: Нова енциклопедија 1), 901; Нова енциклопедија у боји, II, Л – Ш, Вук Караџић, Larousse, Београд – Љубљана 1978. (further: Нова енциклопедија 2), 1424, 1522 – 1523.
2. Нова енциклопедија 2, 1266, 1522 – 1523, 1622, 1666.
3. Gachechiladze, 18 – 19; Нова енциклопедија 1, 901; Нова енциклопедија 2, 1424.
4. Gachechiladze, 19 – 23; Нова енциклопедија 1, 337, 456.
5. Mihail Enev, Mount Athos, Zograph monastery, Sofia 1994. (further: Enev), 158; Николај Велимировић, Охридски пролог, Ниш 1928, 362; John Anthony McGuckin, The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Volume I, A – M, Chichester 2011. (further: McGuckin), 269; Michael Palairet, Macedonia, A voyage through history, (Volume 2, from the Fifteenth Century to the Present), Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne 2015. (further: Palairet), 253; Tamara Grdzelidze, The Georgian tradition, The Orthodox Christian world, edited by Augustine Casiday, New York 2012. (further: Grdzelidze), 62; Ivan Moody, Music in the Orthodox Church, The Orthodox Christian world, edited by Augustine Casiday, New York 2012. (further: Moody), 544; René Gothóni, Graham Speake, The Monastic Magnet, Roads to and from Mont Athos, 2008. (further: Gothóni, Speake), 36; Nicholas J. Santoro, Mary In Our Life: Atlas of the Names and Titles of Mary, The Mother of Jesus and their place in Marian devotion, Bloomington 2011. (further: Santoro), 434.
6. McGuckin, 269; Enev, 171; Gothóni, Speake, 12, 37; Palairet, 253; Нова енциклопедија 1, 120.
7. Enev, 160; Mark C. Bartusis, Land and Privilege in Byzantium, The Institution of Pronoia, Cambridge University Press, New York 2012. (further: Bartusis), XVII – XIX, XXI, 19, 264, 266, 341; Palairet, 253; McGuckin, 269.
8. Palairet, 253; McGuckin, 269 - 270.
9. Enev, 45; McGuckin, 270; Santoro, 434.
10. McGuckin, 270; Bartusis, XVII – XIX, XXI, 19, 264, 266, 341; internet presentation http://whc.unesco.org/archive/2006/mis454-2006.pdf.
11. Асен Чилингиров, Бачковският манастир, Берлин 2015. (further: Чилингиров), 24, 33, 37, 161; Васил Н. Златарски, История на българската държава презъ срѣднитъ вѣкове, Томъ III, Второ българско царство, България при Асѣневци (1187—1280), София (further: Златарски), 32; Николай Хайтов, Асеновград в миналото, Исторически очерк (further: Хайтов), 142; McGuckin, 270; Grdzelidze, 62; Moody, 544.
12. Чилингиров, 5, 9 – 10, 41, 49, 71, 94, 147; Хайтов, 142, 146.
13. Златарски, 31; Чилингиров, 5, 8, 16, 24, 32 - 33, 37 - 39, 43, 156; Хайтов, 145; McGuckin, 269 – 270; Grdzelidze, 62; Moody, 544.
14. Чилингиров, 5, 24, 153; Елка Бакалова, Бачковската костница, София 1977, 16 – 17; McGuckin, 269; Moody, 544.
15. Чилингиров, 23, 33; McGuckin, 269.
16. Lynda Garland, Byzantine Women, Varieties of Experience 800-1200, Publications for the Centre for Hellenic Studies, no. 8, King’s College, London 2006. (further: Garland), 91, 94 – 95; internet presentation http://www.roman-emperors.org/maryal.htm#Note 1 (further: Roman Emperors).
17. Garland, 91, 94 – 96, 126; Anne J. Duggan, Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe, Proceedings of a Conference Held at King’s College in London, April 1995, Woodbridge Suffolk 2002. (further: Duggan), 147 – 148; Liz James, Women, Men, and Eunuchs, Gender in Byzantium, London – New York 2008. (further: James), 158, 160; Thalia Gouma-Peterson, Anna Komnene and Her Times, New York 2000. (further: Gouma-Peterson), 87; Roman Emperors.
18. James, 158; Gouma-Peterson, 50; Roman Emperors.
19. Roman Emperors.
20. Gouma-Peterson, 92; Duggan, 147 - 148; James, 160; Roman Emperors.
21. Duggan, 148; Roman Emperors; James, 85.
22. Roman Emperors.
23. Roman Emperors.
24. Gouma-Peterson, 92; Garland, 120; James, 77 – 78, 83, 160; Roman Emperors.
24а. Свети Сава, Сабрана дела, Београд 2005, 183.
25. Gachechiladze, 23 – 26; Нова енциклопедија 2, 1321.
26. Internet presentation Orthodox Church in America https://oca.org/saints/lives/2014/06/13/205381-st-anthimus-bishop-of-georgia (further: Orthodox Church in America); Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 2, 1954, 25.
27. Orthodox Church in America.
28. David Marshall Lang, The Last Years of the Georgian Monarchy, 1658-1832, Columbia University Press, 1957. (further: Lang), 132; Orthodox Church in America.
29. Orthodox Church in America.
30. Stephen H. Rapp, Imagining History at the Crossroads, Persia, Byzantium, and the Architects of the Written Georgian Past, Vol. 1, University of Michigan, 1997, 24; Orthodox Church in America.
31. Orthodox Church in America.
32. Orthodox Church in America.
33. Orthodox Church in America.
34. Lang, 132; Orthodox Church in America.
35. Orthodox Church in America.
36. Internet presentation http://www.dublje.com/ (data from 2013; internet presentation unavailable in 2016/2017); Станко Митић, Говор Великог Извора, internet presentation https://sites.google.com/site/velikiizvor/govor-velikog-izvora (further: Митић).
37. Љубиша Рајковић Кожељац, Црна Река, антропогеографска грађа из заоставштине Маринка Станојевића, Библиотека часописа „Развитак“, Зајечар 1975. (further: Рајковић), 30 – 33.
38. Рајковић, 32 – 33; Митић.
39. Станоје Мијатовић, Ресава, Српска Краљевска Академија, Српски етнографски зборник 46, Насеља и порекло становништва 26, Београд 1930, 205; Рајковић, 32 – 41; Митић.
40. Иван Иванович Ростунов, Петр Иванович Багратион, 1957. (further: Ростунов), 7; В. В. Артемов, Полководцы и флотоводцы, Москва 2013. (further: Артемов), 22; 100 выдающихся полководцев всех времен, Белгород 2014. (further: 100 выдающихся полководцев); Юрий Геннадиевич Степанов, 1812 год, Отечественная война, Кутузов, Бородино, Москва 2013. (further: Степанов), 157; Mark Grossman, World Military Leaders, A Biographical Dictionary, New York 2007. (further: Grossman), 27; Нова енциклопедија 1, 140.
41. Ростунов, 20; 100 выдающихся полководцев; Артемов, 23; А. В. Шишов, Генералиссимус Суворов, Серия „Архив“, Москва 2003. (further: Шишов), 433; Grossman, 27; Нова енциклопедија 1, 140.
42. Артемов, 23; Ростунов, 87, 90; 100 выдающихся полководцев; Grossman, 27; Степанов, 157.
43. Ростунов, 125 – 127; 100 выдающихся полководцев; Edward Cust, Annals of the Wars of the Nineteenth Century, Volume II, 1807 – 1809, London 1862. (further: Cust), 256.
44. Ростунов, 125 - 127; Шишов, 433; Cust, 256.
45. Ростунов, 233; 100 выдающихся полководцев; Степанов, 157; Grossman, 27; Нова енциклопедија 1, 140.
46. Internet presentation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia http://www.mfa.gov.ge/MainNav/ForeignPolicy/BilateralRelations.aspx
47. Internet presentation of The Office The State Minister of Georgia for Diaspora issues http://diaspora.gov.ge/?cat=31 и http://diaspora.gov.ge/?p=7770 ; internet presentation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgians
48. Помозите Србији која страда, мај 2014, text on internet presentation „The Center for Research of Orthodox Monarchism“ http://www.webring.org/l/rd?ring=heraldryring;id=11;url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eczipm%2Eorg%2F (further: Help Serbia).
49. Help Serbia.
50. Help Serbia.
51. Help Serbia.
52. Српски патријарх одликован од стране Принца Давита од Грузије, децембар 2011, text on internet presentation „The Center for Research of Orthodox Monarchism“ http://www.czipm.org/decorated-s.html; Њ.К.В. Принц Давит Багратион-Мухрански Батонишвили од Грузије, Говор Принца Давита од Грузије, децембар 2011, text on internet presentation „The Center for Research of Orthodox Monarchism“ http://www.czipm.org/belgrade-speech-s.html (further: Говор Принца Давита).
53. Говор Принца Давита.
54. Говор Принца Давита; Order Eagle Order Delegations, internet presentation of The Royal House of Georgia http://www.royalhouseofgeorgia.ge/p/eng/448/order-eagle-order-delegations (further: Order Eagle); Order Queen Tamar Order Delegations, internet presentation of The Royal House of Georgia http://www.royalhouseofgeorgia.ge/p/eng/453/order-queen-tamar-order-delegations (further: Order Queen Tamar); HRH Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic Rector of The Order Eagle of Georgia for Serbia 2009 – 2016 funeral and burial in Oplenac, internet presentation of The Royal House of Georgia http://www.royalhouseofgeorgia.ge/p/eng/434/news/308/HRH-PRINCE-ALEXANDER-KARADJORDJEVIC-RECTOR-OF-THE-ORDER-EAGLE-OF-GEORGIA-FOR-SERBIA-2009-2016-FUNERAL-AND-BURIAL-IN-OPLENAC.
55. Order Eagle; Order Queen Tamar.
56. Order Eagle; Order Queen Tamar.
57. Order Queen Tamar; Order Eagle.
58. Order Eagle; Order Queen Tamar.